North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as a northern subcontinent of the Americas, or America,[5][6] in models that use fewer than seven continents. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

North America
Area24,709,000 km2 (9,540,000 sq mi) (3rd)
Population579,024,000 (2016; 4th)
Population density22.9/km2 (59.3/sq mi)[lower-alpha 1]
GDP (PPP)$26.03 trillion (2019; 3rd)[1]
GDP (nominal)$24.43 trillion (2019; 2nd)[2]
GDP per capita$49,240 (2019; 2nd)[3]
DemonymNorth American
Countries23 sovereign states
Dependencies23 non-sovereign territories
LanguagesEnglish, Spanish, French, and many others
Time zonesUTC-10 to UTC
Largest citiesList of urban areas:[4]
UN M49 code003 – North America

North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third-largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa,[7] and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.[8] In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands (most notably around the Caribbean) are included.

North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge approximately 40,000 to 17,000 years ago. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago (the beginning of the Archaic or Meso-Indian period). The Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, with the beginning of the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and all of their descendants.

Owing to Europe's colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak European languages such as English, Spanish or French, and their states' cultures commonly reflect Western traditions.


Map of North America, from 1621

The Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann.[9] Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:[10]

... ab Americo inventore ... quasi Americi terram sive Americam (from Americus the discoverer ... as if it were the land of Americus, thus America).

For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name (Americus Vespucius), but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent. In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere.[11]

Some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries (except in the case of royalty), the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question.[12] In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America; the next year, Jules Marcou suggested that the name of the mountain range stemmed from indigenous American languages.[13] Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and ... the [suffixes] can mean ... a spirit that breathes, life itself."[11]


The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, and The Caribbean. This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division.[14][15][16]

"Northern America", as a term distinct from "North America", excludes Central America, which itself may or may not include Mexico (see Central America § Different definitions). In the limited context of the North American Free Trade Agreement, the term covers Canada, the United States, and Mexico, which are the three signatories of that treaty.

France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, Greece, and the countries of Latin America use a six-continent model, with the Americas viewed as a single continent and North America designating a subcontinent comprising Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and often Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, and Bermuda.[17][18][19][20][21]

North America has been historically referred to by other names. Spanish North America (New Spain) was often referred to as Northern America, and this was the first official name given to Mexico.[22]


Geographically the North American continent has many regions and subregions. These include cultural, economic, and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement. Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Anglo-America and Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America, Belize, and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations (though sub-national entities, such as Louisiana and Quebec, have large Francophone populations; in Quebec, French is the sole official language[23]).

The southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are Central America and the Caribbean.[24][25] The north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, Canada, the United States, and Greenland.[26][27][28][29][30]

The term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Canada and Greenland.[31][32] Although the term does not refer to a unified region,[33] Middle America—not to be confused with the Midwestern United States—groups the regions of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.[34]

The largest countries of the continent, Canada and the United States, also contain well-defined and recognized regions. In the case of Canada these are (from east to west) Atlantic Canada, Central Canada, Canadian Prairies, the British Columbia Coast, and Northern Canada. These regions also contain many subregions. In the case of the United States – and in accordance with the US Census Bureau definitions – these regions are: New England, Mid-Atlantic, South Atlantic States, East North Central States, West North Central States, East South Central States, West South Central States, Mountain States, and Pacific States. Regions shared between both nations included the Great Lakes Region. Megalopolises have formed between both nations in the case of the Pacific Northwest and the Great Lakes Megaregion.

Countries, territories, and dependencies

Arms Flag Country or territory[35][36][37] Capital Area[38] Population
(United Kingdom)
The Valley 91 km2
(35 sq mi)
14,731 164.8/km2
(427/sq mi)
Antigua and Barbuda St. John's 442 km2
(171 sq mi)
96,286 199.1/km2
(516/sq mi)
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)[lower-alpha 2]
Oranjestad 180 km2
(69 sq mi)
105,845 594.4/km2
(1,539/sq mi)
The Bahamas[lower-alpha 3] Nassau 13,943 km2
(5,383 sq mi)
385,637 24.5/km2
(63/sq mi)
Barbados Bridgetown 430 km2
(170 sq mi)
286,641 595.3/km2
(1,542/sq mi)
Belize Belmopan 22,966 km2
(8,867 sq mi)
383,071 13.4/km2
(35/sq mi)
(United Kingdom)
Hamilton 54 km2
(21 sq mi)
62,756 1,203.7/km2
(3,118/sq mi)
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)[lower-alpha 2][41]
Kralendijk 294 km2
(114 sq mi)
12,093 41.1/km2
(106/sq mi)
British Virgin Islands
(United Kingdom)
Road Town 151 km2
(58 sq mi)
29,802 152.3/km2
(394/sq mi)
Canada Ottawa 9,984,670 km2
(3,855,100 sq mi)
37,064,562 3.7/km2
(9.6/sq mi)
Cayman Islands
(United Kingdom)
George Town 264 km2
(102 sq mi)
64,174 212.1/km2
(549/sq mi)
Clipperton Island (France) 6 km2
(2.3 sq mi)
0 0/km2
(0/sq mi)
Costa Rica San José 51,100 km2
(19,700 sq mi)
4,999,441 89.6/km2
(232/sq mi)
Cuba Havana 109,886 km2
(42,427 sq mi)
11,338,134 102.0/km2
(264/sq mi)
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)[lower-alpha 2]
Willemstad 444 km2
(171 sq mi)
162,752 317.1/km2
(821/sq mi)
Dominica Roseau 751 km2
(290 sq mi)
71,625 89.2/km2
(231/sq mi)
Dominican Republic Santo Domingo 48,671 km2
(18,792 sq mi)
10,627,141 207.3/km2
(537/sq mi)
El Salvador San Salvador 21,041 km2
(8,124 sq mi)
6,420,746 293.0/km2
(759/sq mi)
Federal Dependencies of Venezuela
Gran Roque 342 km2
(132 sq mi)
2,155 6.3/km2
(16/sq mi)
(Kingdom of Denmark)
Nuuk 2,166,086 km2
(836,330 sq mi)
56,564 0.026/km2
(0.067/sq mi)
Grenada St. George's 344 km2
(133 sq mi)
111,454 302.3/km2
(783/sq mi)
Basse-Terre 1,628 km2
(629 sq mi)
399,848 246.7/km2
(639/sq mi)
Guatemala Guatemala City 108,889 km2
(42,042 sq mi)
17,247,849 128.8/km2
(334/sq mi)
Haiti Port-au-Prince 27,750 km2
(10,710 sq mi)
11,123,178 361.5/km2
(936/sq mi)
Honduras Tegucigalpa 112,492 km2
(43,433 sq mi)
9,587,522 66.4/km2
(172/sq mi)
Jamaica Kingston 10,991 km2
(4,244 sq mi)
2,934,847 247.4/km2
(641/sq mi)
Fort-de-France 1,128 km2
(436 sq mi)
375,673 352.6/km2
(913/sq mi)
Mexico Mexico City 1,964,375 km2
(758,449 sq mi)
126,190,788 57.1/km2
(148/sq mi)
(United Kingdom)
Brades[lower-alpha 4]
102 km2
(39 sq mi)
4,993 58.8/km2
(152/sq mi)
Nicaragua Managua 130,373 km2
(50,337 sq mi)
6,465,501 44.1/km2
(114/sq mi)
Nueva Esparta
La Asunción 1,151 km2
(444 sq mi)
491,610 427.1/km2
(1,106/sq mi)
Panama[lower-alpha 2][lower-alpha 5] Panama City 75,417 km2
(29,119 sq mi)
4,176,869 45.8/km2
(119/sq mi)
Puerto Rico
(United States)
San Juan 8,870 km2
(3,420 sq mi)
3,039,596 448.9/km2
(1,163/sq mi)
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)[41]
The Bottom 13 km2
(5.0 sq mi)
1,537 118.2/km2
(306/sq mi)
San Andrés and Providencia
San Andrés 53 km2
(20 sq mi)
77,701 1,468.59/km2
(3,803.6/sq mi)
Saint Barthélemy
Gustavia 21 km2
(8.1 sq mi)[43]
7,448 354.7/km2
(919/sq mi)
Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre 261 km2
(101 sq mi)
52,441 199.2/km2
(516/sq mi)
Saint Lucia Castries 539 km2
(208 sq mi)
181,889 319.1/km2
(826/sq mi)
Saint Martin
Marigot 54 km2
(21 sq mi)[43]
29,820 552.2/km2
(1,430/sq mi)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint-Pierre 242 km2
(93 sq mi)
5,849 24.8/km2
(64/sq mi)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown 389 km2
(150 sq mi)
110,211 280.2/km2
(726/sq mi)
Sint Eustatius
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)[41]
Oranjestad 21 km2
(8.1 sq mi)
2,739 130.4/km2
(338/sq mi)
Sint Maarten
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Philipsburg 34 km2
(13 sq mi)
41,940 1,176.7/km2
(3,048/sq mi)
Trinidad and Tobago[lower-alpha 2] Port of Spain 5,130 km2
(1,980 sq mi)
1,389,843 261.0/km2
(676/sq mi)
Turks and Caicos Islands
(United Kingdom)[lower-alpha 6]
Cockburn Town 948 km2
(366 sq mi)
37,665 34.8/km2
(90/sq mi)
United States[lower-alpha 7] Washington, D.C. 9,629,091 km2
(3,717,813 sq mi)
327,096,265 32.7/km2
(85/sq mi)
United States Virgin Islands
(United States)
Charlotte Amalie 347 km2
(134 sq mi)
104,680 317.0/km2
(821/sq mi)
Total 24,500,995 541,720,440 22.1/km2
(57/sq mi)


Geologic history

Principal hydrological divides of Canada, the United States and Mexico

Laurentia is an ancient craton which forms the geologic core of North America; it formed between 1.5 and 1.0 billion years ago during the Proterozoic eon.[44] The Canadian Shield is the largest exposure of this craton. From the Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic eras, North America was joined with the other modern-day continents as part of the supercontinent Pangaea, with Eurasia to its east. One of the results of the formation of Pangaea was the Appalachian Mountains, which formed some 480 million years ago, making it among the oldest mountain ranges in the world. When Pangaea began to rift around 200 million years ago, North America became part of Laurasia, before it separated from Eurasia as its own continent during the mid-Cretaceous period.[45] The Rockies and other western mountain ranges began forming around this time from a period of mountain building called the Laramide orogeny, between 80 and 55 million years ago. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama that connected the continent to South America arguably occurred approximately 12 to 15 million years ago,[46] and the Great Lakes (as well as many other northern freshwater lakes and rivers) were carved by receding glaciers about 10,000 years ago.

North America is the source of much of what humanity knows about geologic time periods.[47] The geographic area that would later become the United States has been the source of more varieties of dinosaurs than any other modern country.[47] According to paleontologist Peter Dodson, this is primarily due to stratigraphy, climate and geography, human resources, and history.[47] Much of the Mesozoic Era is represented by exposed outcrops in the many arid regions of the continent.[47] The most significant Late Jurassic dinosaur-bearing fossil deposit in North America is the Morrison Formation of the western United States.[48]


The El Castillo pyramid, at Chichén Itzá, Mexico
A US stamp commemorating Leif Erikson. Canada, the USA, and Iceland observe Leif Erikson Day on the 9th of October.

The indigenous peoples of the Americas have many creation myths by which they assert that they have been present on the land since its creation,[49] but there is no evidence that humans evolved there.[50] The specifics of the initial settlement of the Americas by ancient Asians are subject to ongoing research and discussion.[51] The traditional theory has been that hunters entered the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska from 27,000 to 14,000 years ago.[52][53][lower-alpha 8] A growing viewpoint is that the first American inhabitants sailed from Beringia some 13,000 years ago,[55] with widespread habitation of the Americas during the end of the Last Glacial Period, in what is known as the Late Glacial Maximum, around 12,500 years ago.[56] The oldest petroglyphs in North America date from 15,000 to 10,000 years before present.[57][lower-alpha 9] Genetic research and anthropology indicate additional waves of migration from Asia via the Bering Strait during the Early-Middle Holocene.[59][60][61]

Before contact with Europeans, the natives of North America were divided into many different polities, from small bands of a few families to large empires. They lived in several "culture areas", which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones and give a good indication of the main way of life of the people who lived there (e.g., the bison hunters of the Great Plains, or the farmers of Mesoamerica). Native groups can also be classified by their language family (e.g., Athapascan or Uto-Aztecan). Peoples with similar languages did not always share the same material culture, nor were they always allies. Anthropologists think that the Inuit people of the high Arctic came to North America much later than other native groups, as evidenced by the disappearance of Dorset culture artifacts from the archaeological record, and their replacement by the Thule people.

During the thousands of years of native habitation on the continent, cultures changed and shifted. One of the oldest yet discovered is the Clovis culture (c. 9550–9050 BCE) in modern New Mexico.[58] Later groups include the Mississippian culture and related Mound building cultures, found in the Mississippi river valley and the Pueblo culture of what is now the Four Corners. The more southern cultural groups of North America were responsible for the domestication of many common crops now used around the world, such as tomatoes, squash, and maize. As a result of the development of agriculture in the south, many other cultural advances were made there. The Mayans developed a writing system, built huge pyramids and temples, had a complex calendar, and developed the concept of zero around 400 CE.[62]

The first recorded European references to North America are in Norse sagas where it is referred to as Vinland.[63] The earliest verifiable instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact by any European culture with the North America mainland has been dated to around 1000 CE.[64] The site, situated at the northernmost extent of the island named Newfoundland, has provided unmistakable evidence of Norse settlement.[65] Norse explorer Leif Erikson (c. 970–1020 CE) is thought to have visited the area.[lower-alpha 10] Erikson was the first European to make landfall on the continent (excluding Greenland).[67][68]

The Mayan culture was still present in southern Mexico and Guatemala when the Spanish conquistadors arrived, but political dominance in the area had shifted to the Aztec Empire, whose capital city Tenochtitlan was located further north in the Valley of Mexico. The Aztecs were conquered in 1521 by Hernán Cortés.[69]

Colonial period

During the Age of Discovery, Europeans explored and staked claims to various parts of North America. Upon their arrival in the "New World", the Native American population declined substantially, because of violent conflicts with the invaders and the introduction of European diseases to which the Native Americans lacked immunity.[70] Native culture changed drastically and their affiliation with political and cultural groups also changed. Several linguistic groups died out, and others changed quite quickly. The names and cultures that Europeans recorded were not necessarily the same as the names they had used a few generations before, or the ones in use today.

Britain, Spain, and France took over extensive territories in North America. In the late 18th and early 19th century, independence movements sprung up across the continent, leading to the founding of the modern countries in the area. The 13 British Colonies on the North Atlantic coast declared independence in 1776, becoming the United States of America. Canada was formed from the unification of northern territories controlled by Britain and France. New Spain, a territory that stretched from the modern-day southern US to Central America, declared independence in 1810, becoming the First Mexican Empire. In 1823 the former Captaincy General of Guatemala, then part of the Mexican Empire, became the first independent state in Central America, officially changing its name to the United Provinces of Central America.

Over three decades of work on the Panama Canal led to the connection of Atlantic and Pacific waters in 1913, physically making North America a separate continent.


Satellite imagery of North America

North America occupies the northern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, the Americas, or simply America (which, less commonly, is considered by some as a single continent[71][72][73] with North America a subcontinent).[74] North America's only land connection to South America is at the Isthmus of Darian/ Isthmus of Panama. The continent is delimited on the southeast by most geographers at the Darién watershed along the Colombia-Panama border, placing almost all of Panama within North America.[75][76][77] Alternatively, some geologists physiographically locate its southern limit at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, with Central America extending southeastward to South America from this point.[78] The Caribbean islands, or West Indies, are considered part of North America.[5] The continental coastline is long and irregular. The Gulf of Mexico is the largest body of water indenting the continent, followed by Hudson Bay. Others include the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Gulf of California.

Before the Central American isthmus formed, the region had been underwater. The islands of the West Indies delineate a submerged former land bridge, which had connected North and South America via what are now Florida and Venezuela.

There are numerous islands off the continent's coasts; principally, the Arctic Archipelago, the Bahamas, Turks & Caicos, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Aleutian Islands (some of which are in the Eastern Hemisphere proper), the Alexander Archipelago, the many thousand islands of the British Columbia Coast, and Newfoundland. Greenland, a self-governing Danish island, and the world's largest, is on the same tectonic plate (the North American Plate) and is part of North America geographically. In a geologic sense, Bermuda is not part of the Americas, but an oceanic island which was formed on the fissure of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge over 100 million years ago. The nearest landmass to it is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. However, Bermuda is often thought of as part of North America, especially given its historical, political and cultural ties to Virginia and other parts of the continent.

The vast majority of North America is on the North American Plate. Parts of western Mexico, including Baja California, and of California, including the cities of San Diego, Los Angeles, and Santa Cruz, lie on the eastern edge of the Pacific Plate, with the two plates meeting along the San Andreas fault. The southernmost portion of the continent and much of the West Indies lie on the Caribbean Plate, whereas the Juan de Fuca and Cocos plates border the North American Plate on its western frontier.

The continent can be divided into four great regions (each of which contains many subregions): the Great Plains stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian Arctic; the geologically young, mountainous west, including the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, California and Alaska; the raised but relatively flat plateau of the Canadian Shield in the northeast; and the varied eastern region, which includes the Appalachian Mountains, the coastal plain along the Atlantic seaboard, and the Florida peninsula. Mexico, with its long plateaus and cordilleras, falls largely in the western region, although the eastern coastal plain does extend south along the Gulf.

Nuuk, the capital city of Greenland

The western mountains are split in the middle into the main range of the Rockies and the coast ranges in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, with the Great Basin—a lower area containing smaller ranges and low-lying deserts—in between. The highest peak is Denali in Alaska.

The United States Geographical Survey (USGS) states that the geographic center of North America is "6 miles [10 km] west of Balta, Pierce County, North Dakota" at about 48°10′N 100°10′W, about 24 kilometres (15 mi) from Rugby, North Dakota. The USGS further states that "No marked or monumented point has been established by any government agency as the geographic center of either the 50 States, the conterminous United States, or the North American continent." Nonetheless, there is a 4.6-metre (15 ft) field stone obelisk in Rugby claiming to mark the center. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is located 1,650 km (1,030 mi) from the nearest coastline, between Allen and Kyle, South Dakota at 43.36°N 101.97°W / 43.36; -101.97 (Pole of Inaccessibility North America).[79]


Geologic Map of North America published by USGS
Sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rock types of North America

Canadian geology

Geologically, Canada is one of the oldest regions in the world, with more than half of the region consisting of precambrian rocks that have been above sea level since the beginning of the Palaeozoic era.[80] Canada's mineral resources are diverse and extensive.[80] Across the Canadian Shield and in the north there are large iron, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, and uranium reserves. Large diamond concentrations have been recently developed in the Arctic,[81] making Canada one of the world's largest producers. Throughout the Shield there are many mining towns extracting these minerals. The largest, and best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. Sudbury is an exception to the normal process of forming minerals in the Shield since there is significant evidence that the Sudbury Basin is an ancient meteorite impact crater. The nearby, but less known Temagami Magnetic Anomaly has striking similarities to the Sudbury Basin. Its magnetic anomalies are very similar to the Sudbury Basin, and so it could be a second metal-rich impact crater.[82] The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry.

United States geology

The lower 48 US states can be divided into roughly five physiographic provinces:

  1. The American cordillera
  2. The Canadian Shield[80] Northern portion of the upper midwestern United States.
  3. The stable platform
  4. The coastal plain
  5. The Appalachian orogenic belt

The geology of Alaska is typical of that of the cordillera, while the major islands of Hawaii consist of Neogene volcanics erupted over a hot spot.

North America bedrock and terrain
North American cratons and basement rocks

Central American geology

  Central America rests in the Caribbean Plate.

Central America is geologically active with volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occurring from time to time. In 1976 Guatemala was hit by a major earthquake, killing 23,000 people; Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, was devastated by earthquakes in 1931 and 1972, the last one killing about 5,000 people; three earthquakes devastated El Salvador, one in 1986 and two in 2001; one earthquake devastated northern and central Costa Rica in 2009, killing at least 34 people; in Honduras a powerful earthquake killed seven people in 2009.

Volcanic eruptions are common in the region. In 1968 the Arenal Volcano, in Costa Rica, erupted and killed 87 people. Fertile soils from weathered volcanic lavas have made it possible to sustain dense populations in the agriculturally productive highland areas.

Central America has many mountain ranges; the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, the Cordillera Isabelia, and the Cordillera de Talamanca. Between the mountain ranges lie fertile valleys that are suitable for the people; in fact, most of the population of Honduras, Costa Rica, and Guatemala live in valleys. Valleys are also suitable for the production of coffee, beans, and other crops.


North America map of Köppen climate classification

North America is a very large continent which surpasses the Arctic Circle, and the Tropic of Cancer. Greenland, along with the Canadian Shield, is tundra with average temperatures ranging from 10 to 20 °C (50 to 68 °F), but central Greenland is composed of a very large ice sheet. This tundra radiates throughout Canada, but its border ends near the Rocky Mountains (but still contains Alaska) and at the end of the Canadian Shield, near the Great Lakes. Climate west of the Cascades is described as being a temperate weather with average precipitation 20 inches (510 mm).[83] Climate in coastal California is described to be Mediterranean, with average temperatures in cities like San Francisco ranging from 57 to 70 °F (14 to 21 °C) over the course of the year.[84]

Stretching from the East Coast to eastern North Dakota, and stretching down to Kansas, is the continental-humid climate featuring intense seasons, with a large amount of annual precipitation, with places like New York City averaging 50 inches (1,300 mm).[85] Starting at the southern border of the continental-humid climate and stretching to the Gulf of Mexico (whilst encompassing the eastern half of Texas) is the subtropical climate. This area has the wettest cities in the contiguous U.S. with annual precipitation reaching 67 inches (1,700 mm) in Mobile, Alabama.[86] Stretching from the borders of the continental humid and subtropical climates, and going west to the Cascades Sierra Nevada, south to the southern tip of durango, north to the border with tundra climate, the steppe/desert climate is the driest climate in the U.S.[87] Highland climates cut from north to south of the continent, where subtropical or temperate climates occur just below the tropics, as in central Mexico and Guatemala. Tropical climates appear in the island regions and in the subcontinent's bottleneck. Usually of the savannah type, with rains and high temperatures constants the whole year. Found in countries and states bathed by the Caribbean Sea or to south of the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean.[88]


Notable North American fauna include the bison, black bear, prairie dog, turkey, pronghorn, raccoon, coyote and monarch butterfly.

Notable plants that were domesticated in North America include tobacco, maize, squash, tomato, sunflower, blueberry, avocado, cotton, chile pepper and vanilla.


Non-native nations' control and claims over North America c. 1750–2008
Native languages of the US, Canada and Greenland

Economically, Canada and the United States are the wealthiest and most developed nations in the continent, followed by Mexico, a newly industrialized country.[89] The countries of Central America and the Caribbean are at various levels of economic and human development. For example, small Caribbean island-nations, such as Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and Antigua and Barbuda, have a higher GDP (PPP) per capita than Mexico due to their smaller populations. Panama and Costa Rica have a significantly higher Human Development Index and GDP than the rest of the Central American nations.[90] Additionally, despite Greenland's vast resources in oil and minerals, much of them remain untapped, and the island is economically dependent on fishing, tourism, and subsidies from Denmark. Nevertheless, the island is highly developed.[91]

Demographically, North America is ethnically diverse. Its three main groups are Caucasians, Mestizos and Blacks. There is a significant minority of Indigenous Americans and Asians among other less numerous groups.


The dominant languages in North America are English, Spanish, and French. Danish is prevalent in Greenland alongside Greenlandic, and Dutch is spoken side by side local languages in the Dutch Caribbean. The term Anglo-America is used to refer to the anglophone countries of the Americas: namely Canada (where English and French are co-official) and the United States, but also sometimes Belize and parts of the tropics, especially the Commonwealth Caribbean. Latin America refers to the other areas of the Americas (generally south of the United States) where the Romance languages, derived from Latin, of Spanish and Portuguese (but French speaking countries are not usually included) predominate: the other republics of Central America (but not always Belize), part of the Caribbean (not the Dutch-, English-, or French-speaking areas), Mexico, and most of South America (except Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana (France), and the Falkland Islands (UK)).

The French language has historically played a significant role in North America and now retains a distinctive presence in some regions. Canada is officially bilingual. French is the official language of the Province of Quebec, where 95% of the people speak it as either their first or second language, and it is co-official with English in the Province of New Brunswick. Other French-speaking locales include the Province of Ontario (the official language is English, but there are an estimated 600,000 Franco-Ontarians), the Province of Manitoba (co-official as de jure with English), the French West Indies and Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, as well as the US state of Louisiana, where French is also an official language. Haiti is included with this group based on historical association but Haitians speak both Creole and French. Similarly, French and French Antillean Creole is spoken in Saint Lucia and the Commonwealth of Dominica alongside English.

A significant number of Indigenous languages are spoken in North America, with 372,000 people in the United States speaking an indigenous language at home,[92], about 225,000 in Canada[93] and roughly 6 million in Mexico[94]. In the United States and Canada, there are approximately 150 surviving indigenous languages of the 300 spoken prior to European contact[95].


Washington National Cathedral, in Washington, D.C. The United States has the most people in the world identifying as Christian.

Christianity is the largest religion in the United States, Canada and Mexico. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey, 77% of the population considered themselves Christians.[96] Christianity also is the predominant religion in the 23 dependent territories in North America.[97] The United States has the largest Christian population in the world, with nearly 247 million Christians (70%), although other countries have higher percentages of Christians among their populations.[98] Mexico has the world's second largest number of Catholics, surpassed only by Brazil.[99] A 2015 study estimates about 493,000 Christian believers from a Muslim background in North America, most of them belonging to some form of Protestantism.[100]

According to the same study religiously unaffiliated (include agnostic and atheist) make up about 17% of the population of Canada and the United States.[101] No religion make up about 24% of the United States population, and 24% of Canada total population.[102]

Canada, the United States and Mexico host communities of both Jews (6 million or about 1.8%),[103] Buddhists (3.8 million or 1.1%)[104] and Muslims (3.4 million or 1.0%).[105] The biggest number of Jewish individuals can be found in the United States (5.4 million),[106] Canada (375,000)[107] and Mexico (67,476).[108] The United States host the largest Muslim population in North America with 2.7 million or 0.9%,[109][110] While Canada host about one million Muslim or 3.2% of the population.[111] While in Mexico there were 3,700 Muslims in the country.[112] In 2012, U-T San Diego estimated U.S. practitioners of Buddhism at 1.2 million people, of whom 40% are living in Southern California.[113]

The predominant religion in Central America is Christianity (96%).[114] Beginning with the Spanish colonization of Central America in the 16th century, Roman Catholicism became the most popular religion in the region until the first half of the 20th century. Since the 1960s, there has been an increase in other Christian groups, particularly Protestantism, as well as other religious organizations, and individuals identifying themselves as having no religion. Also Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (85%).[114] Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Rastafari (in Jamaica), and Afro-American religions such as Santería and Vodou.


The most populous country in North America is the United States with 329.7 million persons. The second largest country is Mexico with a population of 112.3 million.[115] Canada is the third most populous country with 37.0 million.[116] The majority of Caribbean island-nations have national populations under a million, though Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico (a territory of the United States), Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago each have populations higher than a million.[117][118][119][120][121] Greenland has a small population of 55,984 for its massive size (2,166,000 km² or 836,300 mi²), and therefore, it has the world's lowest population density at 0.026 pop./km² (0.067 pop./mi²).[122]

While the United States, Canada, and Mexico maintain the largest populations, large city populations are not restricted to those nations. There are also large cities in the Caribbean. The largest cities in North America, by far, are Mexico City and New York. These cities are the only cities on the continent to exceed eight million, and two of three in the Americas. Next in size are Los Angeles, Toronto,[123] Chicago, Havana, Santo Domingo, and Montreal. Cities in the sun belt regions of the United States, such as those in Southern California and Houston, Phoenix, Miami, Atlanta, and Las Vegas, are experiencing rapid growth. These causes included warm temperatures, retirement of Baby Boomers, large industry, and the influx of immigrants. Cities near the United States border, particularly in Mexico, are also experiencing large amounts of growth. Most notable is Tijuana, a city bordering San Diego that receives immigrants from all over Latin America and parts of Europe and Asia. Yet as cities grow in these warmer regions of North America, they are increasingly forced to deal with the major issue of water shortages.[124]

Eight of the top ten metropolitan areas are located in the United States. These metropolitan areas all have a population of above 5.5 million and include the New York City metropolitan area, Los Angeles metropolitan area, Chicago metropolitan area, and the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex.[125] Whilst the majority of the largest metropolitan areas are within the United States, Mexico is host to the largest metropolitan area by population in North America: Greater Mexico City.[126] Canada also breaks into the top ten largest metropolitan areas with the Toronto metropolitan area having six million people.[127] The proximity of cities to each other on the Canada–United States border and Mexico–United States border has led to the rise of international metropolitan areas. These urban agglomerations are observed at their largest and most productive in Detroit–Windsor and San Diego–Tijuana and experience large commercial, economic, and cultural activity. The metropolitan areas are responsible for millions of dollars of trade dependent on international freight. In Detroit-Windsor the Border Transportation Partnership study in 2004 concluded US$13 billion was dependent on the Detroit–Windsor international border crossing while in San Diego-Tijuana freight at the Otay Mesa Port of Entry was valued at US$20 billion.[128][129]

North America has also been witness to the growth of megapolitan areas. In the United States exists eleven megaregions that transcend international borders and comprise Canadian and Mexican metropolitan regions. These are the Arizona Sun Corridor, Cascadia, Florida, Front Range, Great Lakes Megaregion, Gulf Coast Megaregion, Northeast, Northern California, Piedmont Atlantic, Southern California, and the Texas Triangle.[130] Canada and Mexico are also the home of megaregions. These include the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, Golden Horseshoe – both of which are considered part of the Great Lakes Megaregion – and megalopolis of Central Mexico. Traditionally the largest megaregion has been considered the Boston-Washington, DC Corridor, or the Northeast, as the region is one massive contiguous area. Yet megaregion criterion have allowed the Great Lakes Megalopolis to maintain status as the most populated region, being home to 53,768,125 people in 2000.[131]

The top ten largest North American metropolitan areas by population as of 2013, based on national census numbers from the United States and census estimates from Canada and Mexico.

Metro Area Population Area Country
Mexico City 21,163,226 7,346 km2 (2,836 sq mi) Mexico
New York City 19,949,502 17,405 km2 (6,720 sq mi) United States
Los Angeles 13,131,431 12,562 km2 (4,850 sq mi) United States
Chicago 9,537,289 24,814 km2 (9,581 sq mi) United States
Dallas–Fort Worth 6,810,913 24,059 km2 (9,289 sq mi) United States
Houston 6,313,158 26,061 km2 (10,062 sq mi) United States
Toronto 6,054,191 5,906 km2 (2,280 sq mi) Canada
Philadelphia 6,034,678 13,256 km2 (5,118 sq mi) United States
Washington, DC 5,949,859 14,412 km2 (5,565 sq mi) United States
Miami 5,828,191 15,896 km2 (6,137 sq mi) United States

2011 Census figures.


Rank Country GDP[132] (PPP, peak year)
millions of USD
Peak year
1 United States21,427,6752019
2 Mexico2,616,2892019
3 Canada1,904,3932019
4 Cuba254,8652015
5 Dominican Republic199,3952019
6 Guatemala152,7792019
7 Puerto Rico130,9272014
8 Panama111,9982019
9 Costa Rica92,0622019
10 El Salvador55,5782019
Rank Country GDP (nominal, peak year)
millions of USD
Peak year
1 United States21,427,6752019
2 Canada1,846,5952013
3 Mexico1,322,4892020
4 Puerto Rico104,3372016
5 Cuba96,8512017
6 Dominican Republic96,2912020
7 Guatemala86,3972020
8 Panama73,3692020
9 Costa Rica65,1792020
10 Trinidad and Tobago28,2332008

North America's GDP per capita was evaluated in October 2016 by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to be $41,830, making it the richest continent in the world,[133] followed by Oceania.[134]

Canada, Mexico, and the United States have significant and multifaceted economic systems. The United States has the largest economy of all three countries and in the world.[134] In 2016, the U.S. had an estimated per capita gross domestic product (PPP) of $57,466 according to the World Bank, and is the most technologically developed economy of the three.[135] The United States' services sector comprises 77% of the country's GDP (estimated in 2010), industry comprises 22% and agriculture comprises 1.2%.[134] The U.S. economy is also the fastest growing economy in North America and the Americas as a whole,[136][133] with the highest GDP per capita in the Americas as well.[133]

Mexican President Peña Nieto, U.S. President Trump, and Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau sign the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement during the G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 30 November 2018

Canada shows significant growth in the sectors of services, mining and manufacturing.[137] Canada's per capita GDP (PPP) was estimated at $44,656 and it had the 11th largest GDP (nominal) in 2014.[137] Canada's services sector comprises 78% of the country's GDP (estimated in 2010), industry comprises 20% and agriculture comprises 2%.[137] Mexico has a per capita GDP (PPP) of $16,111 and as of 2014 is the 15th largest GDP (nominal) in the world.[138] Being a newly industrialized country,[89] Mexico maintains both modern and outdated industrial and agricultural facilities and operations.[139] Its main sources of income are oil, industrial exports, manufactured goods, electronics, heavy industry, automobiles, construction, food, banking and financial services.[140]

The North American economy is well defined and structured in three main economic areas.[141] These areas are the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), and the Central American Common Market (CACM).[141] Of these trade blocs, the United States takes part in two. In addition to the larger trade blocs there is the Canada-Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement among numerous other free trade relations, often between the larger, more developed countries and Central American and Caribbean countries.

The North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) forms one of the four largest trade blocs in the world.[142] Its implementation in 1994 was designed for economic homogenization with hopes of eliminating barriers of trade and foreign investment between Canada, the United States and Mexico.[143] While Canada and the United States already conducted the largest bilateral trade relationship – and to present day still do – in the world and Canada–United States trade relations already allowed trade without national taxes and tariffs,[144] NAFTA allowed Mexico to experience a similar duty-free trade. The free trade agreement allowed for the elimination of tariffs that had previously been in place on United States-Mexico trade. Trade volume has steadily increased annually and in 2010, surface trade between the three NAFTA nations reached an all-time historical increase of 24.3% or US$791 billion.[145] The NAFTA trade bloc GDP (PPP) is the world's largest with US$17.617 trillion.[146] This is in part attributed to the fact that the economy of the United States is the world's largest national economy; the country had a nominal GDP of approximately $14.7 trillion in 2010.[147] The countries of NAFTA are also some of each other's largest trade partners. The United States is the largest trade partner of Canada and Mexico;[148] while Canada and Mexico are each other's third largest trade partners.[149][150]

Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018

The Caribbean trade bloc – CARICOM – came into agreement in 1973 when it was signed by 15 Caribbean nations. As of 2000, CARICOM trade volume was US$96 billion. CARICOM also allowed for the creation of a common passport for associated nations. In the past decade the trade bloc focused largely on Free Trade Agreements and under the CARICOM Office of Trade Negotiations (OTN) free trade agreements have been signed into effect.

Integration of Central American economies occurred under the signing of the Central American Common Market agreement in 1961; this was the first attempt to engage the nations of this area into stronger financial cooperation. Recent implementation of the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) has left the future of the CACM unclear.[151] The Central American Free Trade Agreement was signed by five Central American countries, the Dominican Republic, and the United States. The focal point of CAFTA is to create a free trade area similar to that of NAFTA. In addition to the United States, Canada also has relations in Central American trade blocs. Currently under proposal, the Canada – Central American Free Trade Agreement (CA4) would operate much the same as CAFTA with the United States does.

These nations also take part in inter-continental trade blocs. Mexico takes a part in the G3 Free Trade Agreement with Colombia and Venezuela and has a trade agreement with the EU. The United States has proposed and maintained trade agreements under the Transatlantic Free Trade Area between itself and the European Union; the US-Middle East Free Trade Area between numerous Middle Eastern nations and itself; and the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership between Southeast Asian nations, Australia, and New Zealand.


The full Pan American Highway (including South America), from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to Ushuaia, Argentina

The Pan-American Highway route in the Americas is the portion of a network of roads nearly 48,000 km (30,000 mi) in length which travels through the mainland nations. No definitive length of the Pan-American Highway exists because the US and Canadian governments have never officially defined any specific routes as being part of the Pan-American Highway, and Mexico officially has many branches connecting to the US border. However, the total length of the portion from Mexico to the northern extremity of the highway is roughly 26,000 km (16,000 mi).

2006 map of the North American Class I railroad network

The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States was built in the 1860s, linking the railroad network of the eastern US with California on the Pacific coast. Finished on 10 May 1869 at the famous golden spike event at Promontory Summit, Utah, it created a nationwide mechanized transportation network that revolutionized the population and economy of the American West, catalyzing the transition from the wagon trains of previous decades to a modern transportation system.[152] Although an accomplishment, it achieved the status of first transcontinental railroad by connecting myriad eastern US railroads to the Pacific and was not the largest single railroad system in the world. The Canadian Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) had, by 1867, already accumulated more than 2,055 km (1,277 mi) of track by connecting Ontario with the Canadian Atlantic provinces west as far as Port Huron, Michigan, through Sarnia, Ontario.


A shared telephone system known as the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) is an integrated telephone numbering plan of 24 countries and territories: the United States and its territories, Canada, Bermuda, and 17 Caribbean nations.


Baseball is traditionally known as America's national pastime

Canada and the United States were both former British colonies. There is frequent cultural interplay between the United States and English-speaking Canada.

Greenland has experienced many immigration waves from Northern Canada, e.g. the Thule People. Therefore, Greenland shares some cultural ties with the indigenous people of Canada. Greenland is also considered Nordic and has strong Danish ties due to centuries of colonization by Denmark.[153]

Spanish-speaking North America shares a common past as former Spanish colonies. In Mexico and the Central American countries where civilizations like the Maya developed, indigenous people preserve traditions across modern boundaries. Central American and Spanish-speaking Caribbean nations have historically had more in common due to geographical proximity.

Northern Mexico, particularly in the cities of Monterrey, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and Mexicali, is strongly influenced by the culture and way of life of the United States. Of the aforementioned cities, Monterrey has been regarded as the most Americanized city in Mexico.[154] Immigration to the United States and Canada remains a significant attribute of many nations close to the southern border of the US. The Anglophone Caribbean states have witnessed the decline of the British Empire and its influence on the region, and its replacement by the economic influence of Northern America in the Anglophone Caribbean. This is partly due to the relatively small populations of the English-speaking Caribbean countries, and also because many of them now have more people living abroad than those remaining at home. Northern Mexico, the Western United States and Alberta, Canada share a cowboy culture.


Canada, Mexico and the US submitted a joint bid to host the 2026 FIFA World Cup. The following table shows the most prominent sports leagues in North America, in order of average revenue.[155][156]

US$ (bn)
National Football League (NFL)American footballUnited States192032$9.067,604
Major League Baseball (MLB)BaseballUnited States
National Basketball Association (NBA)BasketballUnited States
National Hockey League (NHL)Ice hockeyUnited States
Liga MXFootball (soccer)Mexico194318$0.625,557
Major League Soccer (MLS)Football (soccer)United States
199424[sn 1]$0.521,574
Canadian Football League (CFL)Canadian footballCanada19589$0.323,890
  1. MLS plans to expand to 26 teams in 2020, and to 28 teams by 2022.

See also



  1. This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 23,090,542 km2 only, considerably less than the total combined land and water area of 24,709,000 km2.
  2. Depending on definitions, Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago have territory in either or both of North and South America.
  3. Since the Lucayan Archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean rather than Caribbean Sea, the Bahamas are part of the West Indies but are not technically part of the Caribbean, although the United Nations groups them with the Caribbean.
  4. Because of ongoing activity of the Soufriere Hills volcano beginning in July 1995, much of Plymouth was destroyed and government offices were relocated to Brades. Plymouth remains the de jure capital.
  5. Panama is generally considered a North American country, though some authorities divide it at the Panama Canal. Figures listed here are for the entire country.
  6. Since the Lucayan Archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean rather than Caribbean Sea, the Turks and Caicos Islands are part of the West Indies but are not technically part of the Caribbean, although the United Nations groups them with the Caribbean.
  7. Includes the states of Hawaii and Alaska which are both separated from the US mainland, with Hawaii distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean and therefore more commonly associated with the other territories of Oceania while Alaska is located between Asia (Russia) and Canada.
  8. The receding of oceans during successive ice ages may have enabled migrants to cross the land bridge as far back as 40,000 years.[54]
  9. While not conclusive, some South American rock painting has been dated to 25,000 years ago.[58]
  10. Descriptions of sites Erikson explored seem to correspond to Baffin Island, the Labrador coast near Cape Porcupine, as well as Belle Isle, and a site which led him to name the country Vinland ('Wineland').[66]


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